Hot, cold or acid taste is not the cause of hypersensitiveness, but they may cause pain. The real cause of the teeth feeling the cold is the gum retraction which reveals the tooth root and the enamel corrosion that exposes the dentin.
If you use an electric toothbrush which stops operation by turning on the warning light when you brush your teeth too hard, you can adjust the intensity of the tooth brushing. Electric toothbrushes works softly on the teeth and gums and remove plaque more effectively. Vibration-rotating electric toothbrushes are confirmed to remove more plaque than regular toothbrushes.
Regular oral hygiene practice is very important to prevent the teeth feeling the cold. Use a good quality toothbrush made of soft materials to brush twice a day for two minutes and use fluoride toothpaste, or a special toothpaste for teeth feeling the cold. Ask your dentist on how to brush teeth without damaging the gums.